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LONG FINNED TUNA

English: Albacore Tuna (long finned tuna)
Latin: Thunnus alalunga
Size + Weight: Average today abt 68 cm abt 20-45 lbs, peak weight  85 lbs (1 lbs = 0.44 kg.) 40 kgs Spain
Biggest Angled Fish: 1977 Siegfried Dickeman
Catching Areas: 40% Northern Pacific
27% Southern Pacific
25% Atlantic Ocean + Mediterranean
8% Indian Ocean
Catching Methods: Pole and Line, surface trolling and long-line fishing
Share of all Tuna Caught: About 7 % or 225.000 m/t
Main Production Areas: Thailand, Indonesia, United States, Japan
Life Cycle: About 5 years
Major Markets: United Sates, Canada, Japan, Spain
Popular Product Forms: Canned (White Tuna)
Fresh , Frozen
More Detailed Description:    Long pectoral fins, which reach to behind the anus and by their dark blue backs and blue-grey flanks and belly
Albacore is a highly migratory species. It can be found in the cooler tropical waters, and is always on the move, seeking for best feeding and spawning grounds.Product Characteristics: Due to its white colored meat albacore is also called " the chicken of the sea". As canned product it is quite popular in the States, where it is marketed as "White Tuna". The meat has a somewhat dry of texture, and the taste comes close to the taste of chicken meat.
Future Supply: The stock of Albacore in the Northern Atlantic is considered to be overfished. There is also indication that stocks in the Southern Atlantic of West-Africa are fully exploited and nearing to a situation of over-fishing. On the situation of the albacore in the Mediterranean the opinions seem non-conclusive. Stocks in the Northern Pacific are fully exploited, but in the Southern Pacific they have reached their critical level.
It is hard to predict if global albacore resources can support further growth. One reason is the strongly variable catch levels each season in the catching areas, caused by the continuous migration of the albacore species.


Information:
Habitat:
The albacore tuna is an epipelagic and mesopelagic, oceanic species, rich in surface waters of 15.6º to 19.4ºC; large albacore tunas are found in water temperatures of 13.5º to 25.2ºC; temperature as low as 9.5ºC may be tolerated for short periods of time.
Distinctive features:
It is one of the larger species; the body is at its deepest at a more posterior point than in other tuna species. The albacore’s first arch consists of 25 to 31 gill rakers. The second dorsal fin clearly lower than first dorsal; pectoral fins are remarkably long, it is usually 30% of fork length or longer in 50+ cm fishes, they are reaching well beyond origin of second dorsal fin. Fish that are smaller than 50 cm will have proportionately smaller pectorals than other tuna species.
Coloration:
The albacore tuna have a faint lateral iridescent blue band that runs along sides in a live fish; first dorsal fin has a deep yellow color, second dorsal and anal fins have a light yellow color, anal finlets have a dark color and the posterior margin of caudal fin has a white color.
Size, age and growth:
Maximum fork length of the albacore tuna is 127 cm. The all-tackle angling record is a 40 kg fish with a fork length of 123 cm, caught in the Canary Island in 1977.
Reproduction:
Fishery in the pacific surface (pole-and-line, and troll fishery), smaller sizes of albacore tuna (sizes between 55 to 80 cm fork length) predominate, while long-line fisheries will catch bigger fishes (sizes between 95 to 115 cm fork length). In the Indian Ocean, common sizes of albacore range from 40 to 100 cm fork length, while in the Atlantic Ocean males up to 109 cm and females up to 106 cm are not exceptional.
In the Pacific Ocean, maturity may be attained at about 90 cm in females and at about 97 cm fork length in males; in the Atlantic Ocean it is reached at about 94 cm in both sexes.
In the subtropical waters of Pacific Ocean centered around the 20o N and 20o S latitude, peak spawning of albacore tuna is generally believed to be occurring. From March through July on the grounds located in the western and central Pacific Ocean it is assumed where the North Pacific albacore stock spawns.
Albacore tuna are believed to be pelagic spawners that broadcast their gametes in open water, often near the surface, with fertilization being externally done. An estimation of female fecundity (number of eggs) range from 0.8 to 2.6 million eggs per spawning (roughly 100,000 eggs per kg of body weight). The eggs are approximately 1 mm in diameter and remain buoyant by an enclosed oil droplet and develop very rapidly, with hatching occurring within 24 to 48 hours.


Stock Status of Albacore Tuna:
Ocean
Regional Management Organization
State of Stock
Last Edited
North Pacific Ocean
IATTC, WCPFC
Fully exploited
Year 2008
South Pacific Ocean
IATTC, WCPFC
Fully exploited
Year 2008
Eastern Pacific Ocean
IATTC
Moderately exploited
Year 2007
Southwestern Pacific Ocean
WPFMC
Moderately exploited
Year 2007
Indian Ocean
IOTC
Fully exploited
Year 2004
North Atlantic Ocean
ICCAT
Overfished
Year 2008
South Atlantic Ocean
ICCAT
Fully exploited
Year 2008


Conservation:
The International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) has not re-assessed the albacore species in over 10 years, and the last assessment given from 1996 was “data deficient”. The assessment of the stocks of the North and South Atlantic Ocean from the same period showed them to be vulnerable and critically endangered.
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1. MARINE FISH I. VIET SEAFOOD 1. MARINE FISH A. Skipjack Tuna                    G. Black Pomfret B. Yellow Fin Tuna                  H. Bigeye Scad C. Bullet Tuna (Bonito)            J. Yellow Tail Scad D. Muroaji (Layang Scad)        K. Hairtail Scad E. Round Scad                         M. Short Body Mackerel F. Indian Mackerel                  N. Black Squid 
2. CRUSTACEANS                  4. CANNED FOOD A. Black tiger shrimp,              A. Canned tuna fish B. Crab                                      B. Canned sardines fish C. Lobster                                 C. Canned  round scad fish 3. MOLUSSCA                        5. DRIED SEAFOOD A. Scallop                               A. Dried anchovy B. White clam shell on            B. Dried yellow stripe C. Brown clam shell on            C. Dried silver scad D. Ark shell meat                   D. Dried white anchovy E. Yellow Clam meat                 E. Dried shrimp
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